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Abstract: Sortilin is a sorting receptor that directs target proteins, such as growth factors, signaling receptors, and enzymes, to their destined location in secretory or endocytic compartments of cells. The activity of sortilin is essential for proper function of not only neurons but also non-neuronal cell types, and receptor (dys)function emerges as a major cause of malignancies, including hypercholesterolemia, retinal degeneration, neuronal cell loss in stroke and spinal cord injury, or Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. In this article, we describe the molecular mechanisms of sortilin action in protein sorting and signaling and how modulation of receptor function may offer novel therapeutic strategies for treatment of common diseases of the cardiovascular and nervous systems.