Sex and gender Differences in Covid-19

During the current Covid-19 pandemic there is an urgent need to better understand sex/gender differences in predictors, trajectories and impacts of Covid-19 prevention and treatment. Data from different countries, who present sex disaggregated numbers, show, that men and women are affected in different ways by the pandemic. It is still unclear, if women or men are more likely to be infected but from those countries, that present sex disaggregated data, we know that men are dying more often and develop more severe symptoms. Women on the other hand are much more affected by the huge burden of care work during the pandemic, represent a larger proportion of healthcare professionals and are more likely to become victims of domestic violence. 

April 2020

Virtual Brainstorming on sex and gender differences in Covid-19

In April a group of BIH and Charité researchers organized a virtual brainstorming with local and international scientists about sex and gender differences in Covid-19. Dr. Tracey Weissgerber from the BIH Quest Center introduced this inclusive and collaborative online format to the group and facilitated the virtual brainstorming. During 48 hours, 30 participants from around the world discussed aspects of gender specific differences in prevention and treatment as well as the importance of gender specific data collection during the Covid-19 pandemic. One important point all participants agreed on is, that we need data that include sex/gender and other dimensions to better understand sex and gender specific differences in Covid-19. Ongoing meta-research shows that many Covid-19 preprints do not report sex and gender. Participants in the virtual brainstorming day are working together to improve reporting

Further information about how to organize a virtual brainstorming day is available at

Resources about sex and gender differences in Covid-19

Research about sex and gender aspects of the Covid-19 pandemic

The gendered dimensions of COVID-19: The Lancet - Link

COVID-19 sex-disaggregated data tracker: Global Health5050 - Link

Gender and Covid-19 Resources (daily updated google doc) - Link

Gender and Covid-19 group: A collection of research, studies and other references covering the sex and gender dimensions of the COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus – Link

Prevalence and predictors of PTSS during COVID-19 outbreak in China hardest-hit areas: Gender differences matter - Link

Impact of sex and gender on COVID-19 outcomes in Europe: Biology of Sex Differences - Link

Towards Precision Medicine: Inclusion of Sex and Gender Aspects in COVID-19 Clinical Studies—Acting Now before It Is Too Late—A Joint Call for Action - Link

The impact of sex and gender in the COVID-19 pandemic, Case study (European Commission H2020 Expert Group) - Link 

Considering how biological sex impacts immune responses and COVID-19 outcomes - Link

Men's health: COVID-19 pandemic highlights need for overdue policy action - Link

Understanding the impact of sex and gender in the pandemic (European Commission): Research projects and fact sheets - Link

PREPREINT 20.04.2020 +++ : Impact of Sex and Gender on COVID-19 Outcomes in Europe - Link

Gender and Covid19- Link 
Bringing together academics from around the world, we conduct real time gender Analysis to identify and document the gendered Dynamics of COVID-19 and gaps in preparedness and response

Considering how biological sex impacts immune responses and COVID-19 outcomes (Nature) - Link

Why sex and gender need to be considered in COVID-19 research. A guide for applicants and peer reviewers - Link

Information on the general Sex and Gender in Research Homepage
Meet the Methods Series: Measuring and Manipulating Sex Hormones in Laboratory Animals - Link

Lack of Consideration of Sex and Gender in Clinical Trails for COVID-19 (Preprint) - Link 

Preprint: Evidence for treatment with estradiol for women with SARS-CoV-2 infection - Link
Ute Seeland, Flaminia Coluzzi, Maurizio simmaco, Cameron Mura, Philip E Bourne, Max Heiland, Robert Preissner, Saskia Preissner 

Academic Productivity Differences by Gender and Child Age in Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics, and Medicine Faculty During the COVID-19 Pandemic - Link 

Sex- or gender-specific differences in the clinical presentation, outcome, and treatment of Sars-Cov2 - Link

Pandemic Resources - Impact of COVID-19 on women in STEM - Link

Sex differences in Immune Response - Link

Gendered societal consequences of the Covid-19 pandemic

Covid-19 and gender equality, European Institute for Gender Equality - Link

COVID-19: A Gender Lens - Technical Brief: Protecting Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights, and Promoting Gender Equality - Link

OECD- short study “Women at the core of the fight against COVID-19 crisis” - Link

Dossier Frauenrat: COVID-19 aus Geschlechterperspektive (only in German) - Link

Applying a Gender Lens to COVID-19 Response and Recovery - Link

Surveys show that COVID-19 has gendered effects in Asia and the Pacific - UN Women - Link

BMJ Global Health: Commentary Symtpoms of a broken systemÖ the gender gaps in COVID-19 decision-making - Link 

Preprint: Women in power: Female leadership and public health outcomes in COVID-29 pandemics - Link

Gendered consequences of the Covid-19 pandemic in science

Who is doing new research in the time of COVID-19? Not the female economists - Link 

No Room of One's Own: Early journal submission data suggest COVID-19 is tanking women's research productivity. - Link 

Zeit, 7.5.2020 Ungleiches ungleich behandeln -Die Pandemie zeigt, wie nötig es ist, die Leistungen von Müttern und Vätern unterschiedlich zu bewerten. - Link

Are women publishing less during the pandemic? Here’s what the data say (Nature) - Link 

Where are the women? Gender inequalities in COVID-19 research authorships - Link

In the wake of COVID-19, academia needs new solutions to ensure gender equity - Link

The careet cost of COVID-19 to female Researchers, and how science should respond - Link 
Some funders and Journals are trying to support female Researchers and others whose publications and positions are at rist 

'It's like we're going back 30 years': how the Coronavirus is gutting diversity in science - Link
The pandemic is sabotaging the careers of Researchers from under-represented Groups, but institutions can help to staunch the outflow. 

Opinion: In the wake of COVID-19, academia needs new solutions to ensure gender equality - Link

The career cost of COVID-19 to female researchers, and how science should respond - Link

The decline of women's research production during the corona pandemic - Link 

Something's got to give - Link

Quantifying the Immediate Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Scientists - Link

COVID-19’s gendered impact on academic productivity - Link

Talking about lockdown and COVID-19 - Link

Preprint: Positive outcomes of COVID-19 research-related gender policy changes - Link

Publizieren im Lockdown Erfahrungen von Professorinnen und Professoren - Link

Wenn es eng wird, sind die Mütter dran - Link